Archive for the ‘Standard 3: Utilization’ Category

Me as the PBL Facilitator

July 21, 2013 Leave a comment

Do I think it will be difficult for me as a teacher to move from teaching to facilitating during the PBL process?  For me, the answer is not really.  I routinely conduct student-led Socratic discussions where I rarely if ever speak during the discussion.  These are led by students and evolve into literary discussions that students want to have about books.  I act as the facilitator at times to encourage new questions to move on from discussions that have grown stale or to remind students about the rules for proper discussion behavior.  This teaching method will help me to work into the role of PBL facilitator where I don’t provide the information to students; I merely provide guidance.PBL_BIE

Effective facilitation starts with the word facilitate.  This word means to make easier or to bring about.  This word does not mean lecture or do it for the students.  A good facilitator provides the expectations of a project up front.  Offers tools and suggestions for students to complete projects effectively.  A facilitator should also be aware of when project goals or expectations are NOT working for students and provide clarification and support.  Facilitators need to be present at all times to “make things easier” and help “bring about” effective solutions to the project questions and problems.

In the process of working through the project, students will develop skills and competencies they need for college and beyond.  Students will be required to foster effective communication with each other and for the final presentation.  They will work with technology tools that can be used for personal or academic projects in the future providing great transference of project skills and tools.  Most importantly, the project will and should help students to synthesize information and think critically about big ideas and global solutions as well as to react to literary texts.

For me to be an effective facilitator, I need to make sure that I give the students time to work.  I tend to want to discuss things over and over to ensure that everyone understands.  I will need to keep the discussion short at the beginning of each class and allow the groups to work through their project.  I also need to make sure to provide a timeline so that students don’t fall behind on creating their presentations.  I need to remember that I can answer questions throughout the class period to individual groups and offer feedback on their progress without involving the entire class each time.

PBL is new for me as I am a more traditional style teacher.  I didn’t have great personal success with projects as a student, so I tend to shy away from them in my teaching.  I know now that my teachers didn’t employ PBL processes to ensure a successful project.  So, I need to make sure that I keep an open mind and a positive attitude about the project.  Starting with a strong driving question will help me to focus the project efforts and keep the students on track.


Integrated Curriculum

July 14, 2013 Leave a comment

My students have an alarming tendency to compartmentalize their classes.  They aren’t prepared to discuss science in English class or math in history class.  Some of them are quite uncomfortable when asked to do so.  I think this is partly because teachers don’t integrate curriculum so students are out of practice with it.  Also, they walk in to English with a set of expectations that do not include being graded for math.  So, educators do need to break down some barriers and stereotypes to get the students on board.  It doesn’Jigsaw Geographyt usually take me long to get them to understand how English and history are related.  But why is this important?  Because life is not compartmentalized.  If school is about teaching the skills students need for life, then they should expect to use those skills in ways they would in life.  This means that educators need to teach students how to recall prior knowledge regardless of discipline when the knowledge is needed.

Integrating curriculum seems so important and, yet, is so rarely done on purpose.  Why is that?  Maybe because I have Aug-May to teach skills that will master a set of standards, and I could easily take twice that time.  Also, I am unsure how math or physics is going to enhance the English curriculum to meet those standards.  So, I am a bit gun shy about turning over my time to another discipline.  That being said, I have always thought that integrating curriculum was a must.  I cannot teach English without engaging with history and language.  Perhaps some teachers can do this, but I feel that we need to have a solid idea of the time in which literature is set and when it was written.  Authors are a product of their environment like everyone else, so we should know what that environment was like.  It’s fairly easy to integrate English and history.  The harder part is to integrate other subjects that don’t seem as involved, science and math come to mind.  However, when I think about it, the scholars and writers of the past were also the philosophers and the scientists.  They knew how to write and speak multiple languages.  So perhaps the disciplines are more closely tied than I first thought.

I think the biggest challenge of integration is to get an entire group of teachers and administrators to see the benefits of interdisciplinary projects.  There is much at stake if the project fails and students can’t perform on standardized tests because the curriculum failed them.  I dislike using the standardized test as the benchmark of success, but that’s what’s done whether I see the value or not.  So, the challenge is to get the teachers to discuss and find value in an interdisciplinary project and then propose an integrated project to administration.  This means that much work has to be done before going to admin.  However, this is a crucial step to ensure that all the teachers are on board with a project and plan to contribute and work through it in their own classes.  If even one teacher drops the ball, the project could die.  I am currently working on an integrated curriculum project with the AP history teacher.  I see where I can and should do more, which means that I need to make some plans and add some activities to enhance the project.  It takes planning!  I think that’s the issue.  Teachers are all so busy that no one wants to add to the amount of planning we all do daily.  Using some success stories as inspiration should help everyone see that the planning is worth it.  The way to get the interdisciplinary project started at my school is to start it!

Project-Based Learning in my Lit Class

June 22, 2013 Leave a comment

This week I did quite a bit of research to locate examples of PBL in the literature classroom.  I have a very traditional teaching style towards literature in that we read and discuss.  I would really like to make the experience more meaningful to my students.  I found several good projects on Shakespeare plays.  One teacher did a monologue project surrounding the play Othello.  Another teacher did a great study of colonialism and The Tempest, which is what I do with my AP Literature students.  We study The Tempest and Heart of Darkness together.  The project that I find most applicable to my classroom was one having to do with Romeo and Juliet.  The teacher based her leading question on a report about future work skills, incorporating a decidedly non-English framework that was interesting for the students. They worked from a great leading question that really supported all their activity.

I like to think that I am open to PBL in my teaching, but I am actually a bit apprehensive.  I learn more each year about how I can be a better teacher.  I want to make sure that I cover all the bases in creating a project so that the students aren’t left wondering what happened.  At the same time, I see how a well-executed project could really motivate students and engage them in the literature.

I think I would like to start with a leading question like:  What is justice?  Subsequent questions will help students to narrow their focus and help them to use their research to support or refute the justice present in the play.  I haven’t decided on examples for students to help them articulate their answers, but I think video, an editorial, or a re-staging of the trial might be directions that I pursue.

One important aspect that I found in my research on PBL is that the initial question is everything.  So, I am planning to start there and move forward.

My Thoughts on Project-Based Learning

June 16, 2013 Leave a comment

Ask me anytime before this class, and I would tell you that I am not a fan of projects.  They take too much class time, and they don’t support my learning objectives.  It seems that I have been doing it wrong.  I haven’t yet determined how projects can help my students in their AP Literature & Composition course, but I remain hopeful that I can learn and create a meaningful project for the AP students.

I guess it makes sense that a project should start with a leading research-type question.  This is what was lacking from my own experience with projects.  My former teachers handed out a packet and said get to work.  It was neither effective nor inspiring.  However, if we had started with a problem or a question to solve, that might have made my experience better.  What I have found so far is a list of resources that I want to keep in mind for project-based learning (PBL).

This article was the first I read that suggested the problem or question is important.

I also really like the following videos for examples of PBL:  PBL Explained 

and Edutopia’s PBL Introduction

I think I am still going to have a challenge with projects because I am a literature teacher.  I have always been focused on the literature itself.  I don’t want to change that focus, but I would like to create a project that helps students to discover the literature that is meaningful to them.  So, stay tuned…

EDTECH 541: Obstacles to Technology Integration in the Language Arts

November 19, 2012 1 comment

While technology has undeniably aided teaching, it has introduced a new set of obstacles to teaching language arts.  Digital and information literacies are new types of literacy that need to  be taught alongside traditional reading and writing.  Roblyer and Doering (2013) note that “like the definition of literacy itself, the definition of digital literacy has changed over the years and now means skills in using the information that technological devices carry, in addition to skills using the devices themselves” (p. 267).  English teachers now have the task of teaching students how to read and how to do it using modern technology.  The task of teaching technology is rarely acknowledged in language arts teaching.  We didn’t have to spend a lot of our time teaching students how to use a book; however, depending upon access to technology and parental teaching, students are at vastly different levels of experience when it comes to technology.  Now students are receEreaderiving information from technology sources like emails, instant messages, and blogs.  “Since teaching students to make meaning from texts is primarily seen as the responsibility of English and language arts teachers, these shifting definitions challenge teachers to constantly rethink the skills they teach in order to make their 21st century students truly literate”  (Roblyer and Doering, 2012, p. 268).

The other new literacy facing language arts teachers is known as information literacy, which is the skill that requires people to recognize when they need information and be able to find, evaluate, and use that information (Roblyer and Doering, 2012, p. 268).  Information literacy is primarily a research skill, which is generally seen as a task taught by English teachers.  So, the obstacle becomes teaching student how to know when they need outside research, where to locate reliable research, and how to write research papers.

The confrontation of new literacies is compounded by the usual obstacles to teaching with technology:  limited access to technology, restrictive administrations, and finances.  However, the new literacies themselves become great motivation and reasoning for incorporating more technology in the classroom.

English teachers can answer the problems of these new literacies by relying upon technology itself.  Using the very sources of information that students encounter will not only incorporate the technology but also teach students how to use the technology.  Blogs and wikis can easily be incorporated into learning activities that satisfy digital literacy.  Also, technology can be the best response to research-based assignments with the use of bookmarking sites like Diigo and Delicious.  Teaching students to use the internet to conduct research helps they cultivate information literacy and develop traditional research skills.

While technology has introduced a new set of challenges for teachers, technology also solves those challenges handily.  The main task is getting teachers to understand the new literacies and respond to them through integrating technology.


Roblyer, M.D. & Doering, A.H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

EDTECH 541: Relative Advantage of Technology for Content Areas

November 12, 2012 1 comment

Technology is a part of life whether teachers choose to use in their classrooms or not. Teachers must start to learn that part of literacy in the modern day is digital literacy, which includes “skills in using the information that technological devices carry, in addition to skills in using the devices themselves” (Roblyer & Doering 2013, p. 267).  I know teachers who are admittedly ignorant of most technologies available.  Sadly, many of these people are tremendous teachers who would construct amazing lessons around simple technology.  Roblyer and Doering (2013) note that “to be able to teach the new literacies, teachers must become proficient in the new tools that both help define literacy in the 21st century and make possible the strategies to teach it” (p. 281).

The relative advantage of integrating technology into curriculum is chiefly one of motivation and access to materials.  Personally, I think all technology integration should be done at the content area level.  When we connect with technology for a specific content area, then we know that the technology supports that specific area’s objectives and goals.  I teach langauge arts, specifically literature.  My school doesn’t provide eBooks or e-readers, but students use them if they choose.  I use technology to conduct research, teach writing skills, and locate media sources to support books.  My students are far more engaged watching a university film regarding Chaucer’s motivation in writing The Canterbury Tales than they are listening to me lecture.  Many of the technology resources that I use are visual for students:  film, presentations, or artwork.

However, I find the most benefit for students comes when they get to be hands-on with technology.  Roblyer & Doering (2013) note that technology gives students a sense of ownership, which motivates them to learn; “Technology offers a natural setting in which students can be positioned as the experts, helping redefine the student–teacher relationship” (p. 260).  Getting students to engage with technology and literature through technology can be as simple as having them type and publish their poetry or original narratives online (using technology like Scribd, Mixbook, or blogs).  They see their writing on a website that they can share with family members, which makes their efforts seem lasting and important.  I find that writing becomes a fun process for students when they can engage with techology.  Concept mapping software can help students visually organize essays and plan out their argument.  They can use digital outlining tools to help organize writing.  Once writing ceases to be a chore, students engage with it more fully.

Additionally, technology offers access to materials that teachers can’t bring into the classroom.  This week, I wrote an assignment about integrating primary source documents into a social studies activity.  I was able to use, Smithsonian online, and History Source Online to locate primary documents to use in my class lesson on colonization.  These documents are housed overseas where I would not otherwise be able to access them.  The only option other than technology would have been to purchase a textbook with versions or excerpts of the documents.  What I found using online resources were scans of the original documents  including the antiquated typesetting and hand-drawn images from the 1800s.  These small features contribute to the sense of history contained within the documents.  A textbook would not be able to create the same material feeling.  Technology was able to bring history to my fingertips making the history more authentic and meaningful.  It can do the same for my students.

My research shows me that technology is only getting more interactive.  Using simulations and mapping software, teachers are able to make content come alive for students.  Students are able to video chat and blog with people across the globe; “these interactions provide a tremendous multicultural benefit to our classrooms that has never existed before” (Roblyer & Doering 2013, p. 269).  The world becomes a smaller place when students can work closely with “friends” across the globe.  Teaching with techology not only creates engaged and motivated students, but also it can help them to become responsible and informed global citizens.


Roblyer, M.D. & Doering, A.H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

EDTECH 541: Online Safety for Teens

October 28, 2012 2 comments

Internet Safety for High School students

Remember when you couldn’t go online without your mom or dad typing in the web address and watching over your shoulder?  Those days could return if internet rules aren’t followed.  Rules for the internet, like most rules, are in place to ensure that you are safe from harm while conducting your business online.  Teenagers are constantly bombarded with rules for conduct and behavior.  Keep in mind that the internet can be a stalking ground as well a place to meet friends and do homework.  “Internet safety isn’t about a bunch of rules telling you ‘never do this’, or trying to scare you into safe behavior.  Internet safety is about avoiding being ripped off, disrespected, bullied, scammed, or stalked while you’re just trying to have a good time online” (Lookbothways, 2008). Remember the following rules to keep you and your family safe:

  • Don’t provide information online that would allow a stranger to find you.  Remember, “predators may use this information to begin illegal or indecent relationships or to harm a person’s or family’s well-being” (, 2012).  Is your safety and that of your family worth a few minutes of online conversation?
  • Protect your personal information.  Many online sites have listed in their terms and conditions a clause stating that they can use your material if you post it on their site; this includes sites like Facebook and MySpace.  Don’t post your personal photos, creative writing, and other proprietary information online if you want to maintain ownership of it.  Remember, “if [online sites] own your content and profile, and your information is ‘repurposed,’ there isn’t much you can do about it” ((Lookbothways, 2008).
  • Protect your reputation.  Your presence online reflects back upon you, and online material doesn’t go away!  Remember that “what’s funny today can embarrass you tomorrow [, and] anything you say or do can be copied, pasted, and sent to gazillions of people without your permission” (Perle, 2010).
  • Be nice.  Don’t do anything online that could be considered cyber bullying.  There is a person behind the computer; it’s not just a machine that you are speaking to in online chat rooms and social media sites.  Ross (2011) reminds us: “Yes, use your network connections to express yourself freely, explore strange new worlds, and boldly go where you’ve never gone before. But remember the Prime Directive of Netiquette: Those are real people out there.”

Using the internet safely and responsibly can open doors for you in your personal, educational, and professional life.  Just make sure that you protect yourself and others by being respectful of them and you!  Here’s a link to Netsmartz online resources for internet safety.  It includes real life stories of teens who were hurt online.  Be careful and have fun doing it! (2012). Online safety.  Retrieved from:

Lookbothways Inn. (2008). Retrieved from:

Perle, L. (Jan 2010). Get cybersmart with Phineas and Ferb. Retrieved from:

Ross, S. (2011). Netiquette.  Retrieved from: